## Peanut Gallery Independent Praise of Drew Hempel's research

You have the best mental focus of any student I've met. Just don't let it go to your head! Qigong Master Jim Nance 2015

Your mind is very powerful from years of meditation. Just focus on the lower tan t'ien. Qigong Master Chunyi Lin 2015

My second source for the superiority of full lotus is the teaching of qigong master Chunyi Lin, founder of Spring Forest Qigong. According to qigong researcher (and all around wild and crazy guy) Drew Hempel, Chunyi Lin said that 20 minutes in full lotus is worth 4 hours of any other meditation practice. That sounds like an exaggeration, but Drew has had some pretty far out results from his practice. Chris, Tai Chi in San Diego, 2011

2/2/11: Long time Steamshovel correpsondent Drew Hemphill has had his research cited extensively in a new article by Dan Eden (Gary Vey) who had exposed James Hurtak's ties to Project HAARP and the NSA: Kenn Thomas
I think Drew Hempel offers us some clues about chirality and harmonics.

1) There is a self-sustaining cosmic resonance (hidden coherence) - what he calls alchemical resonance?

2) Natural resonance cycles change over time (based on precession of the equinox?) where there is a switch from carbon to silicone based life?

3) The resonance change between Saturn and Jupiter will have a major effect upon Earth?

4) Aligning the ions of plasma with the ions of matter creates complimentary opposites of energy and mass?

5) Positronium (electron-position coupling) creates mirror matter that passes through black holes?

The Secret of Pre-Established Harmony and the Image of Time

gritzle70 on The Next Level forum in 2008
According to the polymath and University of Minnesota alum Drew Hempel, the vagus nerve climax can be achieved by male practitioners of meditation and Qigong. According to Hempel, these practices can ionize neurotransmitters in the gut — our body's largest repository of serotonin — which can then travel through the vagus nerve and cross the normally prudish blood-brain barrier, thus giving neck-pulsing, orgasmic-like sensations written about in Daoist texts. Qigong and meditation, Hempel said, are the opposite of dopamine obsession: they focus on present awareness and a lack of anticipation for future events.
David Logan, Op-ed, Daily Nebraskan, 2011

Drew Hempel has caught my interest for some time as many of his articles on the ‘Natural Resonance Revolution’, so closely matches much of our groups ( and my own ) experiences and thoughts on the nature of the phenomena we’ve been exposed to via the frequencies I’ve created for our use. A lot of what Drew speaks about is congruent to where we are at and I think it really serves all of us to reflect upon his writings especially in relation to what we have been journeying through in the real world.
Donald Adams, aka Dr. Starz, computer frequency "sonification" healer

The final phase though of the Exopolitical NWO exoreligion roll out is the Borg-like assimilation philosophies of the Transhuman Movement
and their matrix upload plans so well outlined by Drew Hempel.

UFO Culture blog 2009

Drew Hempel went that far. He's a scientist who has plumbed the depths of these training techniques.
He kind of takes...at one point he called it Pre-Socratic African Taoist Yoga training. Which is I guess a pretty bare one-liner about his research but you know qigong is something that will become more culturally significant in the way that Tai Chi is now.Philosophy professor Dave Leech podcast discussion with David Metcalfe and Dr. Tim Brigham
I will tell you how to do this. I followed the information which was posted in online forums and articles by someone called 'drew hempel' as he studied something called 'spring forest qigong' and 'taoist yoga'. I followed the same training he did and it's very powerful. He studied SFQ with qigong master chun yi lin (http://www.bornahealer.com/)...
- there is a lot of **** on the net because it seems like no one has a clue how to do real energy work, drew hempel was the only person I found who made any sense to me, so I followed what he did and it worked....
Dreambot, 2011 Spiritualforums post

Drew Hempel's third eye is connected like only a handful of people on this planet's are. He's able to see things in a way very few can. If you're interested in metaphysics and the such, he's worth a read.

"Riskfactor" posting on a forum in 2011.

The disgustingly typical common dismissal of yours of Drew's worth is telling. Can't handle anything too far beyond your comfort zone so you don't at all engage, as Drew would say, with his information. Much of which is simply discerning the fundamental structure linking revered traditional scriptures and cuttingedge science and it's explication in human life on Earth.
Then of course you project by claiming he is not engaging well... you're right, but you are still denying your hypocrisy, as you are too scared to admit that the reason you say you don't appreciate any of his writing is probably not because it is all false but because it is occult to your limited mind.
You can't argue with the facts and are too dumb to handle his points so you resort to smear tactics.
Who cares if some nut spams the net. It is only disruptive to the weak of mind. Fact is Drew has an "original" conclusion that deserves global discussion and you censor it like a welltrained shill, which I assume you are not.

Drew's idea. 2:3 is Yang, 3:4 is Yin... ie 666 is Yang. But he might repeat it like the example below, at which 99% of readers will throw their hands up in incomprehension and only folk like me, a stubborn OneTruthLover, bother to really get what he is saying. To say his is crazy is stupidly missing the point, plus to which he seems saner than most of the zombies who pretend humanity. He may a mixed up lake but at least he is not a puddle of puke.
Brace yourselves,
"I've posted that in fact musicologist Ernest McClain had already gleaned this from Plato -- see his Pythagorean Plato -- and that in fact while 5/4 was the Greek Miracle as the cube root of two leading to amplitude as classical mathematics for 3 dimensional form

the Tai Chi Perfect 5th-4th as 2:3 and 3:4 Yang and Yin (my discovery) is the QUANTUM secret of 2-dimensional energy intensity from frequency, not classical amplitude."

Needless to say he condenses much meaning in few words so you gotta read more his of his spiel to get it. His earliest piece on the greek Miracle is best. Cloud Tiger, a Tai Chi practitioner in the UK, 2009

Hempel, proficient in a wide sprectrum of intellectual pursuits including math and music --- and far from being deluded in any sense of the word as brought forth in the above quote by Hui Neng --- is also an eastern spiritual renaissance master as well. Just as much too, in the aforementioned areas and others far afield, as a search of his name will show, or did before he just simply disappeared into cyber space or infinity, he was one of the most prolific contributors on the net. His writings and books lean heavily toward a variety of eastern spiritual aspects, with a strong personal emphasis on qigong and meditation executed almost exclusively through the use of the full lotus position.

Additionally, even though Drew has resurfaced and available for interaction to all comers, I have however, NOT changed any of the above content of the original page because in my opinion it still remains highly relevant, showing all kinds of insight into who and where Hempel comes from, from any number of angles. Good to hear you are back. The internet wasn't the same without you.

The Wanderling, advaita meditation online site page on Drew Hempel

First we have to address the root of this possible problem.

the main root of all of this is the conceptual axiom that the parts of a system should be symmetrical if it desires to be in HARMONY. This in math is called COMMUTATIVE RING, or AxB=BxA.

From this principle (the commutative ring) we created a body of rules and paradigms in science, and even in religion, that separates our perception from nature itself (our game of denying being part of it) For example, as someone on this forum talked about maxwell´s quaternions in here. To work with an asymmetrical principle (most of things in nature) with our math that has as a main basic principle the commutative ring we first need to CHANGE what we gonna study, I mean, our science takes the information in nature which is assymétrical and DIVERGENT and converts it to an symmetrical and CONVERGENTE group of data to work with.
This is, as a principle, exactly what we did with the musical scales, as drew demonstrated.

In ancient music we got the asymmetrical intervals and, mainly since old non-pre-socratic Greece, we develop the obsession and the desire to “correct” it´s ugliness (natural asymmetry), so we transformed ancient music into symmetrical intervals. Buy by doing so we generate a comma, an extra group of data that can´t be used and should be discarded and watched over to avoid its return, because if this comma returns to the scale, it will create a hell of a mess to the fragile artificial symmetry we applied to it. So, conceptualy, the kind of technology we create, it prefers to change nature into artificial symmetry instead of flowing with it.

So it´s a matter of the right tool for the right job. And our Math has no asymmetrical tool for the job. IT´s all about the commutative ring, so even when working with asymmetrical systems (like nature) it has to convert it into symmetrical to process it. IT´s simple, drew is saying that western math and music take what is divergent (spiraling out) by nature and converge it before giving any kind of result. It´s a fact. Check, I don´t know, Wikipedia?, to get informations about the commutative ring and the non-commutative ring.

Now, I´m not 100% with drew on the consequences of “raping” nature with symmetry. I do know drew for the last 10yrs. Or so. I´m very good at math and good enough in music. I´m so-so in physics, i´ve studied electrical engineer for two yrs before change my mind and go to journalism school and drop it too to work as a photographer and illustrator and now as a computer graphics animator and advertising film director. So I have some background to understand a great chunk of drew hypothesis.

We try to solve all with symmetry, as the case with the music intervals, therefore, as in the case of music intervals, we create commas in science and all the range of activities that rely on science.

So this is the radical part of this use of musical model to explain things: if we try to understand nature (that is asymmetrical and divergent) with concepts and tools that are symmetrical and convergent) we gonna create dissonances in return and enter in a cycle of solving a dissonance with more symmetry to generate even more dissonance in the next octave ´till we # everything up! (we are already doing so! Our tech gives us marvelous stuff at the same time it acidify the oceans ending up #ing up with animals that depends on ultrasound for communication to reproduction. Our tech gives us marvelous tools as computer hi-res screens, but in return any cycle above 30hz is with time stressful to the human cells, etc, etc.)

non-commutative is so alien to our understand of thing that, as an example, if you go to Mr. Wolfram Math repository site you gonna find only ONE EMPTY page about it!!non-commutative is so alien to our understand of thing that, as an example, if you go to Mr. Wolfram Math repository site you gonna find only ONE EMPTY page about it!!

Now let´s go to the possible solutions for this.

1.full-lotus as a solution. Drew said full-lotus can transform the excess of electrochemical information in the lower body into electromagnectic information in the upper body. Some angry scientific trolls started to make fun of it.

for the materialistic people the thing is in the physiology.

siting in full-lotus will put a great chunk of pressure into your SACRUM! The sacrum is empty and pressure there will start to create small levels of ultra sound that will TRANSDUCE the energy from electrochemical into electromagnetic (remember, SOUND is PRESSURE WAVES, and it´s been prove that ultrasound can transduce energy from one state to other… use uncle google, he is your friend!! )… so this is one of the main reasons why full-lotus is a great tool.

It took me one year of daily chikung to sit in full-lotus with ease, before my one year of spring forest qigong I could barely sit in freestyle (like an north American indian) for more than a couple of minutes without felling a hell of pain in my back and legs!

After i´ve learned to sit in full-lotus, it´s a #ing bliss, full-lotus and half-lotus all day long. I even cut the legs from all my tables in my studio so I can sit in full-lotus and half-lotus anternated all day!!

So it´s one solution, but it´s a personal one.

2. Music create patterns in our brain.
It´s known that music create patterns in our brain. So if we just listen to music made with symmetrical and proportional intervals, some kind of patterns will form… with non-western music (mostly live, since hard to find speakers in home and computers that can produce ultrasound! ) so with non-western music we can generate other kind of patterns, since the intervals are asymmetrical. Drew have posted links to papers demonstrated, among otherthings, how ultrasound can stimulate the brain, the center of the brain, so on.

Also, Pineal Gland is a place made for sonoluminescence production. See? Pineal gland has fluid and cavitation in it! So with ultrasound stimulus in it we can ionize it a lot, we can produce tons of melatonie, and also we can generate little bubbles of light! By my personal experience, seeing light while practicing small universe (the oldest meditation that exist, it´s part of spring forest chikung and also is a “secret” inside the kriya yoga school) is relaxing, insightful and healing.
So, changing the king of music we listen to is a way of changing the patterns in our brain and so maybe it will reflect in the patterns we create in the world too.

3.creating a science where natural resonance ratios are important.
Well, this third item i´ll say nothing, since it´s what i´m working for the past 5 yrs. But a simple example of using natural resonance (non-comutative) musical ratios in technology is The Sonic Bloom, it´s a kit with audio from birds generating the fifth and forth in a repeated way so the intensity will affect the plants cells to expand more, taking more nutrients. It´s amazing. I use it to feed my home grown food (i´m a raw vegetarian) as my wife garden.

And this is just the tip of the iceberg…

Now those open minded, the daily practice of small universe from spring forest qigong, or the listening of music without symmetrical intervals, or the use of tech like the sonic bloom are just a few of the examples of the changes we can make personally or collectively to a better and more harmonious world.
And those so full of the “right” paradigm, well, you can keep projecting your anger on drew, it´s funny to read your assumptions about my crazy druid friend!

KALLISTI and have a nice day and a lovely life!
Guto Novo.
Correspondent for 15 years in Brazil

Seriously drew is next level, beyond even Dobbs, Ebert, Heidegger, Mcluhan etc.
Another UK practitioner-philosopher
"The universe and I came into being together; I and everything therein are One."

"If then all things are One, what room is there for speech? On the other hand, since I can say the word 'one' how can speech not exist? If it does exist, we have One and speech -- two; and two and one -- three(14) from which point onwards even the best mathematicians will fail to reach (the ultimate); how much more then should ordinary people fail?">"

- Chuang Tzu, 300 BCE

"Sound is the bridge between God and the soul" SHRI DHYANYOGI

a “universal scaling system”, ... this discrete scaling manifests itself in acoustic systems, as is well known in western classical music, where the two scalings correspond, respectively, to passing to the octave (frequency ratio of 2) and transposition (the perfect fifth is the frequency ratio 3/2), with the approximate value log(3)/ log(2) ∼ 19/12 responsible for the difference between the “circulating temperament” of the Well Tempered
Clavier and the “equal temperament” of XIX century music. It is precisely the irrationality of log(3)/ log(2) which is responsible for the noncommutative [complementary opposites as yin/yang] nature of the quotient corresponding to the three places {2, 3,∞}. -
Math professor (Fields medal) Alain Connes on quantum music as noncommutative time-frequency origin of reality from infinite spiral of perfect fifths!
Our brain is an incredible ....perceives things in momentum space of the photons we receive and manufactures a mental picture. Which is geometric. But what I am telling you is that I think ...that the fundamental thing is spectral [frequency]....And somehow in order to think we have to do an enormous Fourier Transform...on geometry. By talking about the "music of shapes" is really a fourier transform of shape and the fact that we have to do it in reverse. Alain Connes, 2012
Stanford Quantum physicist Eddie Oshins:
This representation only works for the (more fundamental) 1/2-integral representations (i.e. spinors/turns/quaternions) but also lets one build the vector and tensor representations. The converse does not hold....this property of "noncommutivity" in itself might be valuable in some way.
My claim, and original idea, has been that this is circumnavigating a T'ai Chi (Yin/Yang) symbol! More recently (Oshins, 1993b) I have suggested that this proximate technique can be used to realize Wing Chun kung-fu's "bong sau/tan sau" movement out of the Kauffman/Oshins "quaternionic arm" discussed and referenced below in end note 5.
I believe that this may be a way to get mind to code the relative relationship of part of oneself with respect to the rest of oneself (self-referential motion) and can explain the concepts of being "centered"/"one"/"integrated"/"extended"/"whole" etc. which one strives for in meditation.
Oshins, E. (1993). Oshins, E. (1993). A test for classical psychospinors. http://www.quantumpsychology.com/pdf/Test-ClassicalPsychospinors.pdf In Abdullah, F. (Ed.) Conservation and Invariance. Cambridge, UK: Alternative Natural Philosophy Association, London England.

Manfred Euler's 2013 description of acoustic STM - Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy builds on his previous connections between the quantum acoustic realms.
Binaural hearing is the acoustic analog of the interferometer or double-slit experiments. The two ears can be regarded as an acoustic interferometer, which recovers the phase difference of signals between the two ears by binaural correlation.

Near-field imaging with sound waves compelling demonstrates the inadequacy of pictorial realism and promotes more abstract views of the reality displayed.
A comparison of sound and matter waves clarifies that these [noncommutative] limitations exist in principle.
2016: de Broglie clocks as synchronization: a tangible model of how mass emerges.
matter waves are locally in phase with the particle clocks (de Broglie's Law of Phase Harmony).

The clock runs forever so it's self-sustaining (consciousness-energy). It resonates with the quantum vacuum. The harmonic beats create dynamic energy.

So then you have a "phase particle" that can be faster than the speed of light - superluminal - and a "mass particle" that is slower than the speed of light as the "group wave" of the "phase wave." The beats of the phase wave then are "in resonance" with the quantum vacuum - and so create mass from the massless field, explaining the Higgs mechanism.

"Universal coherence" - a "mind boggling outlook."

Phase harmony in de Broglie theory relates a local periodic phenomenon (the 'particle clock') to a periodic propagating field in such a way that relativistic invariance is satisfied. If a similar phenomenon in the cell is relevant it should couple the global oscillation pattern locally with periodic (mechanic, electric, biochemical ???) processes.

Coherence as consciousness.
"Ghost Tones"

Manfred Euler is a Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Kiel.

It's actually a Klein Bottle so you can't see the 5th dimension.

The red is a logarithmic singularity - but that is just classical physics.

So the foundation of reality is quantum - which is noncommutative phase as the 5th dimension.

So light as a photon is a point but as a wave it is nonlocal - but this means it is in 2 places at the same time - as the 5th dimension that is noncommutative.

People think that doesn't make sense - how can it be in two places at the same time? Actually basic music theory explains this.

So for example the Perfect Fifth is C to F as subharmonic 2/3 while the Perfect Fifth is C to G overtone harmonic as 3/2.

So C = 2 while F=3=G at the same time. That is noncommutative phase. It is also called "Fourier Uncertainty" or "time-frequency uncertainty" - and that is the true foundation of reality.

So for example de Broglie - studying relativity - realized Einstein had a problem - as energy goes to the speed of light then time as wavelength slows down, gets bigger. That means as frequency goes higher then time also gets bigger. That violates a fundamental property since Pythagoras that frequency is inverse to time as wavelength (from music theory).

So de Broglie realized since quantum physics is real there has to be a phase wave that is faster than the speed of light. So you have a mass wave that is the "group phase" - and then you have a particle phase that is called the "internal clock" or a 2nd clock that is the phase wave of the particle - also called the "pilot wave" - and this comes back from the future. So there is a Harvard physicist Andrew Strominger who works with Stephen Hawking - and says that the future already exists and reality is a holograph. So the 4D universe is actually a projection of this 5th dimension of noncommutative phase that is time-like.

This is how precognition is real.

It was Olivier Costa de Beauregard who emphasized that precognition was part of de Broglie's pilot wave model and in 1956 de Broglie said to Costa de Beauregard that there was "an incompatibility with our conventional notions of space and time." Nevertheless scientists have continued this parapsychology research based on de Broglie: pdf AY Temkin 2011

Peter Kingsley notes, "In terms not only of formal and structural analogies but also of historical contacts, there can be no separating the Thracian Orpheus [of Pythagorean equivalence] from central-Asiatic shamanic tradition." This connection with Taoism is also made explicit by the motif of the Pythagorean master Empedocles who, "dies a miraculous death by vanishing into thin air but who leaves a tell-tale item.... A more classic Taoist concept is that of achieving the divine state either by fashioning a spirit-body...thoughtfully leaving a pile of discarded garments...."
Ancient Philosophy, Mystery and Magic, Oxford Ph.D. thesis, 1995, p. 236.

## Sunday, July 16, 2017

### A Pan-Aryan website corrects their errors? K. E. Eduljee and the Aryan Lapis Lazuli Lie

Dear K. E. Eduljee:

Strabo in Geographia 11.8.2 states: "But the best known of the nomads (Saka) are those who took away Bactriana from the Greeks, I mean the Asii, Pasiani, Tochari (Tarim basin, Khotan),
http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/saka/saka4.htm
But that is not what Strabo stated - he made no reference to the Tarim Basin as the Tochari he referred to lived in Bactria.

These people were called "Tocharian" by late-19th century scholars who identified them with the Tókharoi described by ancient Greek sources as inhabiting Bactria.

thanks,
drew hempel, M.A.
Now "corrected"?

### Aryan Saka, Scythia & Scythians - Zoroastrian Heritage

www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/saka/saka4.htm
Strabo in Geographia 11.8.2 states (translation by Jones, our notes in []): "But the best known of the nomads [Saka] are those who took away Bactriana from the Greeks, I mean the Asii, Pasiani, Tochari [commonly thought as originating in Tarim Basin, Khotan], and Sacarauli [see Sarikoli, the language spoken in Tashkurgan ...
Nope it's still not corrected:
File:Afanasevo provisional.png
The geographic area the Afanasevo culture covered
J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair argue that the Tocharian languages were introduced to the Tarim and Turpan basins from the Afanasevo culture to their immediate north. The Afanasevo culture (c. 3500 – 2500 BC) displays cultural and genetic connections with the Indo-European-associated cultures of the Central Asian steppe yet predates the specifically Indo-Iranian-associated Andronovo culture (c. 2000 – 900 BC) enough to isolate the Tocharian languages from Indo-Iranian linguistic innovations like satemization.[8][9]

http://infogalactic.com/info/Tocharians
So Tocharians were Indo-Europeans but not Aryans.

Dear K. E. Eduljee: Strabo is referring to a different people than the Tarim Basin.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tocharian_languages
Identifying the authors with the Tokharoi people of ancient Bactria (Tokharistan), early authors called these languages "Tocharian". Although this identification is now generally considered mistaken, the name has stuck.
. Ptolemy's Tócharoi are often associated by modern scholars with the Yuezhi of Chinese historical accounts, who founded the Kushan empire.[8][9] It is now clear that these people actually spoke Bactrian, an Eastern Iranian language, rather than the language of the Tarim manuscripts, so the term "Tocharian" is considered a misnomer.[10][11][12]

So the OP erroneously claims an "old Aryan empire" that includes the Tarim basin mummies.

But the Tarim basin mummies are definitely not Aryan!

(notice I didn't enlarge the font - for extra emphasis I kept the font normal size).

Now notice the Indo-Iranian (i.e. Aryan) is way down on the bottom while Tocharian is way up on the top.

If you raid Victor Mair's pdf - I'll link it

So he says any Iranian (Aryan) influence with the Tarim Basin would not have been until 1000 BCE whereas the Tarim Basim - as the image shows - goes back to 3300 BCE.

So look at this image - it shows how Iranian (Aryan) is a later (I chose the format option of italicization instead of enlargement, I hope that is o.k. with the mods) "encirclement" of the Tokharians of the Tarim Basin.

Quote
The critical element here is that there seems to be one issue that does receive widespread linguisitic support: Tocharian is in no way closely related the languages of its geographical neighbors, Indo-Iranian (Meillet 1914; Pinault 2002, 244).

I'm quoting Victor Mair's pdf

Emphasis of changing the font and bolding it is not in the original - so please don't harp on me mods for making that formatting change.

Dear K.E. Eduljee: Thank you for editing your quote of Strabo. You also state this incorrectly as being Aryan trade when in fact the "Aryans" did not trade lapis Lazuli until much later. Please correct this error:

Jump to Badakshan Lapis Lazuli - By the second half of the 4th millennium BCE, Badakshan lapis lazuli (stone of blue) was being traded in countries as ...

And see how the Aryans moved into the area much later then second half of 4th millennium BCE?

Quote
Deh Morasi Gundai was eventually abandoned about 1500 BC, perhaps because of the westward shift of the river on which it was built. Mundigak continued another 500 years. Two successive invasions by a nomadic tribe from the north forced the inhabitants to abandon the city after more than 2,000 years of continuous occupation.

https://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/afgh02-02enl.html

Quote
Aryan Migration

After 2400 BC, throughout Central Asia the growth of urban societies was severely challenged. Within a span of some three hundred years, none of the major centers that developed during the first half of the 3rd millennium were still occupied. The precise reasons for this "urban collapse" remain a mystery. Yet toward the end of 3rd millennium, across northern Afghanistan and southern Turkemenistan and Uzbekistan, a series of events fueled the rise of cities and settlements that was to have a major impact.

Large numbers of nomadic invaders or migrants, pastoral citiless people travelling on horseback and by chariot, long known (conveniently, perhaps wrongly) as Aryans (derived from the Sanskrit word for "nobles"), migrated south from the Caspian Sea region across the Oxus (present-day Amu Darya) River to present-day Afghanistan during the late early 2nd millennium (by circa 1700 BC).
But this Lapis Lazuli trade was not "Aryan" until a couple thousand years later. So it is factually incorrect to claim that is Aryan trade at that early history.

Quote
Deh Morasi Gundai was eventually abandoned about 1500 BC, perhaps because of the westward shift of the river on which it was built. Mundigak continued another 500 years. Two successive invasions by a nomadic tribe from the north forced the inhabitants to abandon the city after more than 2,000 years of continuous occupation.

https://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/afgh02-02enl.html

Quote
Archaeological evidence suggests that Middle Bronze Age Andronovo descendants of the Early Bronze Age horse-based, pastoralist and chariot-using Sintashta culture, located in the grasslands and river valleys to the east of the Southern Ural Mountains and likely speaking a proto-Indo-Iranian language, probably expanded east and south into Central Asia by ~3.8 ka.

3.8 ka = 1800 BCE which is the 2nd millennium BCE not 3rd millennium.
Quote
Archaeological evidence suggests that Middle Bronze Age Andronovo descendants of the Early Bronze Age horse-based, pastoralist and chariot-using Sintashta culture, located in the grasslands and river valleys to the east of the Southern Ural Mountains and likely speaking a proto-Indo-Iranian language, probably expanded east and south into Central Asia by ~3.8 ka.

3.8 ka = 1800 BCE which is the 2nd millennium BCE not 3rd millennium.

## Genetic evidence for the spread of Indo-Aryan languages

June 22, 2017 @ 9:19 pm · Filed by Victor Mair under Historical linguistics, Language and archeology, Language and genetics
My own investigations on the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age peoples of Eastern Central Asia (ECA) began essentially as a genetics cum linguistics project back in the early 90s.  That was not long after the extraction of mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) from ancient human tissues and its amplification by means of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) became possible.

By the mid-90s I had grown somewhat disenchanted with ancient DNA (aDNA) studies because the data were insufficient to determine the origins and affiliations of various early groups with satisfactory precision, neither spatially nor temporally.  Around the same time, I began to realize that other types of materials, such as textiles and metals, provided powerful diagnostic evidence.
By the late 90s, combining findings from all of these fields and others, I was willing to advance the hypothesis that some of the mummies of ECA, especially the earliest ones dating to around 1800 BC, may have spoken a pre-proto-form of Tocharian when they were alive (some people think it's funny or scary to imagine that mummies once could speak).  This hypothesis was presented at an international conference held at the University of Pennsylvania in April, 1996, which was attended by more than a hundred archeologists, linguists, geneticists, physical anthropologists, textile specialists, metallurgists, geographers, climatologists, historians, mythologists, and ethnologists — including more than half a dozen of the world's most distinguished Tocharianists.  It was most decidedly a multidisciplinary conference before it became fashionable to call academic endeavors by such terms (see " Xdisciplinary" [6/14/17]).  The papers from the conference were collected in this publication:
Victor H. Mair, The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia (Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man Inc. in collaboration with the University of Pennsylvania Museum Publications, 1998).  2 vols.
J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair, The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. (2000). Thames & Hudson. London.
It is only very recently, within the last ten years or so, that Y-chromosome analysis has been brought into play for the study of ancient DNA.  See Toomas Kivisild, "The study of human Y chromosome variation through ancient DNA", Human Genetics, 2017; 136(5): 529–546; published online 2017 Mar 4. doi:  10.1007/s00439-017-1773-z.*  Since only males carry the Y-chromosome, this has made it possible to trace the patriline of individuals.  This, coupled with the massive accumulation and detailed analysis of modern DNA with increasing sophistication and the rise of the interdisciplinary (!) field referred to as genomics, has made studies on the genetics of premodern people, including their origins, migrations, and affinities, far more exacting than it was during the 90s when I did the bulk of my investigations on the early inhabitants of the Tarim Basin.
Now it is possible to draw on the results of genetics research to frame and more reliably solve questions about the development of languages from their homeland to the far-flung places where they subsequently came to be spoken.  One such inquiry is described in this article:
Tony Joseph, "How genetics is settling the Aryan migration debate", The Hindu (6/16/17).
It is significant that this substantial article appeared in The Hindu, since there is a strong bias against such conclusions among Indian nationalists (see "Indigenous Aryans").  It begins thus:
New DNA evidence is solving the most fought-over question in Indian history. And you will be surprised at how sure-footed the answer is, writes Tony Joseph
The thorniest, most fought-over question in Indian history is slowly but surely getting answered: did Indo-European language speakers, who called themselves Aryans, stream into India sometime around 2,000 BC – 1,500 BC when the Indus Valley civilisation came to an end, bringing with them Sanskrit and a distinctive set of cultural practices? Genetic research based on an avalanche of new DNA evidence is making scientists around the world converge on an unambiguous answer: yes, they did.
Joseph's paper is informed, sensitive, balanced, and nuanced.  This is responsible science journalism.
The scientific paper itself, “A Genetic Chronology for the Indian Subcontinent Points to Heavily Sex-biased Dispersals” by Marina Silva, Marisa Oliveira, Daniel Vieira, Andreia Brandão, Teresa Rito, Joana B. Pereira, Ross M. Fraser, Bob Hudson, Francesca Gandini, Ceiridwen Edwards, Maria Pala, John Koch, James F. Wilson, Luísa Pereira, Martin B. Richards, and Pedro Soares, was published in BMC Evolutionary Biology (3/23/17) ( DOI: 10.1186/s12862-017-0936-9).
I'm skeptical of many of the claims put forward by geneticists concerning origins and dispersals, not just about humans, but also about horses, dogs, cats, plants, and so forth.  This study, however, is both cautious and solid.  Moreover, it fits well with the archeological evidence (more below).
Here are two key paragraphs from the scientific paper (numbers in square brackets are to accessible references):
Although some have argued for co-dispersal of the Indo-Aryan languages with the earliest Neolithic from the Fertile Crescent [88, 89], others have argued that, if any language family dispersed with the Neolithic into South Asia, it was more likely to have been the Dravidian family now spoken across much of central and southern India [12]. Moreover, despite a largely imported suite of Near Eastern domesticates, there was also an indigenous component at Mehrgarh, including zebu cattle [85, 86, 90]. The more widely accepted “Steppe hypothesis” [91, 92] for the origins of Indo-European has recently received powerful support from aDNA evidence. Genome-wide, Y-chromosome and mtDNA analyses all suggest Late Neolithic dispersals into Europe, potentially originating amongst Indo-European-speaking Yamnaya pastoralists that arose in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe by ~5 ka, with expansions east and later south into Central Asia in the Bronze Age [53, 76, 93, 94, 95]. Given the difficulties with deriving the European Corded Ware directly from the Yamnaya [96], a plausible alternative (yet to be directly tested with genetic evidence) is an earlier Steppe origin amongst Copper Age Khavlyn, Srednij Stog and Skelya pastoralists, ~7-5.5 ka, with an infiltration of southeast European Chalcolithic Tripolye communities ~6.4 ka, giving rise to both the Corded Ware and Yamnaya when it broke up ~5.4 ka [12].
An influx of such migrants into South Asia would likely have contributed to the CHG component in the GW [VHM:  genome-wide] analysis found across the Subcontinent, as this is seen at a high rate amongst samples from the putative Yamnaya source pool and descendant Central Asian Bronze Age groups. Archaeological evidence suggests that Middle Bronze Age Andronovo descendants of the Early Bronze Age horse-based, pastoralist and chariot-using Sintashta culture, located in the grasslands and river valleys to the east of the Southern Ural Mountains and likely speaking a proto-Indo-Iranian language, probably expanded east and south into Central Asia by ~3.8 ka. Andronovo groups, and potentially Sintashta groups before them, are thought to have infiltrated and dominated the soma-using Bactrian Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) in Turkmenistan/northern Afghanistan by 3.5 ka and possibly as early as 4 ka. The BMAC came into contact with the Indus Valley civilisation in Baluchistan from ~4 ka onwards, around the beginning of the Indus Valley decline, with pastoralist dominated groups dispersing further into South Asia by ~3.5 ka, as well as westwards across northern Iran into Syria (which came under the sway of the Indo-Iranian-speaking Mitanni) and Anatolia [12, 95, 97, 98].
The spread of R1a into South Asia had earlier been securely documented in Peter A. Underhill, et al., "The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a", European Journal of Human Genetics (2015) 23, 124–131; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.50; published online 26 March 2014.
The precise coalescence of R1a within South Asia was identified in Monika Karmin, et al., "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture", Genome Research (2015); doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.11; published in advance March 13, 2015 (supplemental material available electronically).
This kind of male migration theory is proposed with arguments based on archeological evidence in the last pages of H.-P. Francfort, “La civilisation de l'Oxus et les Indo-Iraniens et Indo-Aryens”, in: Aryas, Aryens et Iraniens en Asie Centrale (Collège de France. Publications de l'Institut de Civilisation Indienne, vol. 72), G. Fussman, J. Kellens, H.-P. Francfort, et X. Tremblay (eds.) (Paris:  Diffusion de Boccard, 2005) pp. 253-328.  The complete paper is on academia website.
Michael Witzel has favored this, the (Indo-)Aryan Migration view, on linguistic and textual grounds since at least 1995 and was constantly criticized for saying so. See his papers of 1995, 2001:
"Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts."  EJVS (May 2001) pdf.
"Early Indian History: Linguistic and Textual Parameters."  In: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity: The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia. Ed. G. Erdosy (Berlin/New York: de Gruyter 1995), 85-125; —  Rgvedic history: poets, chieftains and politics, loc. cit. 307-352 combined pdf (uncorrected).
and the substrate paper of 1999:
"Early Sources for South Asian Substrate Languages." Mother Tongue (1999, extra number) pdf
Some relevant Language Log posts:
"Dating Indo-European" (12/10/03)
*For those who are interested in the development of aDNA Y-chromosome studies beginning in the 2000s, I have some additional documentation and several relevant papers that I can send to you.
[Thanks to Richard Villems, Toomas Kivisild, and Peter Underhill]
June 22, 2017 @ 9:19 pm · Filed by Victor Mair under Historical linguistics, Language and archeology, Language and genetics